The MIPI Alliance recently released MIPI A-PHY v1.0, the primary automotive long-reach serializer-deserializer (SerDes) bodily layer interface specification. Let me clarify what automotive SerDes interfaces are for and why they’re essential.
New transformative automotive tendencies are accelerating the evolution of auto electronics. Superior driver help techniques (ADAS), in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) and autonomous driving techniques (ADS) are rising the necessity for extra subtle cameras, sensors, shows and onboard processing energy.
The advantages are clear: Extra superior sensors and electronics enhance ADAS, higher-resolution and bigger in-vehicle shows improve driver consciousness, and ADS assist eradicate human error. Nevertheless, these tendencies require new improvements in security and driver functions, making automobiles extra technically complicated. Automotive OEMs and suppliers can assist these developments by making the most of present applied sciences whereas simplifying improvement by standardization.
A pattern use case: Higher backup cameras
Interfaces for cameras, sensors, shows and different parts play an essential function in new automotive capabilities. Take the instance of a backup digital camera: Video from a rear-mounted digital camera should attain a show on the dashboard in actual time, and any interruption, delay or glitch could possibly be a matter of life and demise.
In the present day, the bodily layer interfaces that hyperlink these parts throughout a car are usually not standardized. An industry-backed technical specification for this vital interface will improve innovation, scale back value and enhance useful security, safety and efficiency.
A standardized interface may even carry new applied sciences to market quicker, supply OEMs larger alternative, foster interoperability, and supply enhanced assist providers reminiscent of check and software program assets from a rising ecosystem.
Introducing MIPI A-PHY
The MIPI Alliance recently released MIPI A-PHY v1.0, the primary automotive long-reach serializer-deserializer (SerDes) bodily layer interface specification. It gives an uneven information hyperlink in a point-to-point or daisy-chain topology, offering high-speed unidirectional information, embedded bidirectional management information and non-obligatory energy supply over a single cable. The Alliance additionally launched MIPI Automotive SerDes Solutions (MASS), a sequence of full-stack connectivity options constructed on A-PHY, which can allow end-to-end safety and useful security for functions involving ADAS, IVI and ADS.
To assist quickly advancing in-car electronics, A-PHY defines a dependable, resilient, low latency, high-bandwidth interface with a path to future efficiency will increase. Key options embody:
- Excessive reliability: Extremely-low packet error fee of 10-19 or lower than one error within the lifetime of the automotive
- Excessive resiliency: Extremely-high immunity to EMI results
- Excessive efficiency: Knowledge charges as excessive as 16 Gbps, with a roadmap to 48 Gbps and past; v1.1, already in improvement, will present a doubling of the high-speed information fee to 32 Gbps and improve the uplink information fee to 200 Mbps
- Low latency: Mounted latency as little as ~6µs, relying on pace gear
- Lengthy attain: As much as 15 meters
- Helps energy over cable
MIPI A-PHY implementations: Automakers are anticipated to combine A-PHY into their techniques in two phases. First, A-PHY will supply a typical long-reach interface between bridge chips. As extra parts assist A-PHY, cameras and shows will be capable to use CSI-2 and DSI-2 natively over A-PHY (with out bridge chips) to scale back value, complexity, wiring, weight and use of area.
As proven within the diagram above, the first objective of MIPI A-PHY is to switch high-speed information between cameras and shows and their related digital management items (ECUs). It does this by permitting higher-layer protocols—together with the well-established MIPI CSI-2 and MIPI DSI-2 specs, in addition to different authorised protocols reminiscent of VESA’s DisplayPort and Embedded DisplayPort (DP/eDP)—to function straight over bodily hyperlinks all through a car.
Finally A-PHY integration straight into the ECU will free OEMs from having to assist exterior PHY bridge ICs. Key benefits embody the discount of value, cable and improvement time.
Glass-to-glass picture transmission
Within the backup digital camera instance, MASS gives a full-stack answer that makes use of the identical bodily interface and the identical security and security measures, making a “glass-to-glass” answer from digital camera to show. Right here’s the way it works:
The rear digital camera pixel stream is transmitted on to an ECU utilizing CSI-2 over A-PHY. The ECU performs picture sign processing with graphics overlay and sends the video stream to a number of shows. On this leg, the info will be transmitted utilizing both MIPI DSI-2 or VESA DP/eDP over A-PHY.
The MASS protocol stack accommodates end-to-end useful security and safety enhancements for CSI-2 and DSI-2 to forestall failures and malicious or non-malicious tampering. Moreover, high-bandwidth digital content material safety (HDCP) will be utilized to forestall copying. The result’s the flexibility to move greater resolutions than HD video from the backup digital camera to the motive force’s show.
Different MASS functions embody lane-keeping and sign-detection sensors; 360-degree digital camera, lidar and radar techniques; and a number of high-resolution instrumentation, management and leisure shows, together with superior head-up shows and aspect mirror shows.
The MASS protocol stack
The MASS stack incorporates components required for security, reliability and safety and might accommodate a number of protocols from MIPI and different authorised protocols.
Starting on the bodily layer, A-PHY contains options reminiscent of a PHY-level retransmission scheme to get better broken packets and guarantee regular connections. A-PHY’s protocol-agnostic information hyperlink layer permits a number of protocols to be multiplexed over one A-PHY hyperlink.
Decrease-layer protocols reminiscent of MIPI CSI-2 and DSI-2 are built-in with A-PHY by a set of security and safety extensions and protocol adaptation layers (PALs) that map these protocols to A-PHY’s A-Packet format. PALs are in improvement for MIPI CSI-2, MIPI DSI-2, VESA’s DP/eDP, I2C, GPIO, I2S and Ethernet. A PAL for the MIPI I3C bus interface can also be forthcoming.
Higher-layer useful security and safety capabilities are added utilizing MIPI Digicam Service Extensions (CSE) and Show Service Extensions (DSE) on prime of CSI-2, DSI-2 and different native protocols. These extensions, together with a MIPI A-PHY Reference Compliance Check Suite, are anticipated to be obtainable in early 2021.
Collectively, these components will assist system-level engineers adhere to the ISO 26262 security normal and construct techniques that meet Automotive Security Integrity Stage (ASIL) necessities at any degree, from ASIL B to ASIL D.
Whereas new car improvement takes years, a standardized end-to-end answer for in-vehicle connectivity can provide OEMs and their suppliers extra confidence to combine future applied sciences that improve security, safety and the in-car expertise.
To be taught extra about MASS and different MIPI automotive options, go to: mipi.org.
— James Goel is chair of the Technical Steering Group at MIPI Alliance. Goel can also be director of engineering and requirements at Qualcomm.